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Dr. Levine's caution about erasing Jews from the story of Jesus is well taken. There is a very active group of anti-Semites who deny that Jesus is Jewish. And who use the discussion about "Ioudaioi" as grounds for their position. So great care must be taken. Nonetheless, it is my view that never using "Judean" is also a problem because it erases the actual family conflicts that were present within the people of Israel at the time of Jesus. In particular, the attitude of Judeans towards Galileans. I believe the Gospel of John was written by a Jew, and so we need to hear their writing as not referring to the people of Israel - the "Jews." But as referring to a sub-group they are fighting with - the Judean elite. (And you'll note that I am adding a second classification - "elites." Because it is the elites who are in the conflicted position of needing to collaborate with Rome who seek to have Jesus arrested and executed.)

Dr. Amy-Jill Levine said in a webinar on January 28 2023 that while "Judeans" is a valid translation for "Ioudaioi", if you always translate it this way it erases the word "Jew" from the New Testament. How can this be resolved?

Richard Bauckham, who's a genius in Johannine intricacies, explains that "Israel" is the term the Jews use about themselves to themselves, while "Jews/Judeans" (it's not quite as easy as just switching one for the other, by the way) is the term outsiders use for them. Thus, the Romans say, "King of the Jews."

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